René Viviani was named as Prime Minister of France by President Poincaré on 13 June 1914. He received a vote of confidence of 370 to 137 in the Chamber of Deputies. A former member of the Socialist Party, he had been an Independent Socialist since 1904.
The vote of confidence resolved the crisis created by Poincaré's refusal to appoint Joseph Caillaux, whose Radical party was the largest in France's National Assembly following the May election, as Prime Minister.
Viviani supported the controversial Three Year Law on military service, which a Caillaux government would have repealed, and also agreed to support a large loan (1,800,000,000 francs) for military expenses.